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Data Lists and Directories

In the Nuxeo Platform, a directory is used to provide a abstraction on all referential data that can be manipulated inside the application. These data are (mostly) table-like data that lives outside of the VCS document storage database:

  • Users,
  • Groups of users,
  • Fixed list of values (vocabularies),
  • Roles,
  • ...

A directory is typically a connection to an external data source that is also access by other processes than the Nuxeo Platform itself (therefore allowing shared management and usage).

A vocabulary is a specialized directory with only a few important columns that are used by the Nuxeo Platform to display things like menus and selection lists.

We try to map all data that can be manipulated like record via directories. For that, directories provide a simple CRUD API and an abstraction on the actual implementation. This means that the services of the platform do not have to worry about where and how the data is stored, they just access the API.

Directories comes with several implementations:

  • SQL directories that can map SQL tables,
  • LDAP directories that can map a LDAP server,
  • Multi-directory that allow to combine several directories into a single one.

SQL Directories

SQL directories read and store their information in a SQL database. They are defined through the directories extension point of the org.nuxeo.ecm.directory.sql.SQLDirectoryFactory component.

The directory element must contain a number of important sub-elements:

  • name: The name of the directory, used for overloading and in application code;
  • schema: The schema describing the columns in the directory;
  • dataSource: The JDBC datasource defining the database in which the data is stored;
  • table: The SQL table in which the data is stored;
  • idField: The primary key in the table, used for retrieving entries by id;
  • autoincrementIdField: Whether the idField is automatically incremented. This value is most of the time at false, because the identifier is a string;
  • querySizeLimit: The maximum number of results that the queries on this directory should return. If there are more results than this, an exception will be raised;
  • dataFile: File from which data is read to populate the table, depending on the following element;
  • createTablePolicy: Indicates how the dataFile will be used to populate the table. Three values are allowed: never if the dataFile is never used (the default), on_missing_columns if the dataFile is used to create missing columns (when the table is created or each time a new column is added, due to a schema change), always if the dataFile is used to create the table as each restart of the application server;
  • cacheTimeout: The timeout (in seconds) after which an entry is not kept in the cache anymore. The default is 0 which means never time out;
    It will be deprecated from LTS 2015 and should be replace by the usage of cacheEntryName and cacheEntryWithoutReferencesName where max size and TTL (equivalent to timeout) can be configured.
  • cacheMaxSize: The maximum number of entries in the cache. The default is 0 and means to not use entries caching at all;
    Will also be deprecated from LTS 2015.
  • cacheEntryName: The name of the cache (from the CacheService) containing full entries. (SQL/LDAP only)
  • cacheEntryWithoutReferencesName: The name of the cache (from the CacheService) containing entries without references. (SQL/LDAP only)
  • readOnly: If the directory should be read-only;
  • substringMatchType: How a non-exact match is done, possible values are subany, subinitial or subfinal; this is used in most UI searches.

The following is used by the UI if the directory is a hierarchical vocabulary:

  • parentDirectory: The parent directory to use.

The following are used only if the directory is used for authentication:

  • password: Field from the table which contain the passwords;
  • passwordHashAlgorithm: The has algorithm to use to store new passwords. Allowed values are SSHA and SMD5. The default (nothing specified) is to store passwords in clear. Example:

    <?xml version="1.0"?>
    <component name="com.example.project.directories.sql">
      <extension target="org.nuxeo.ecm.directory.sql.SQLDirectoryFactory"
          point="directories">
        <directory name="continent">
          <schema>vocabulary</schema>
          <dataSource>java:/nxsqldirectory</dataSource>
          <cacheEntryName>continent-entry-cache</cacheEntryName>
          <cacheEntryWithoutReferencesName>continent-entry-cache-without-references</cacheEntryWithoutReferencesName>
    
          <table>continent</table>
          <idField>id</idField>
          <autoincrementIdField>false</autoincrementIdField>
          <dataFile>directories/continent.csv</dataFile>
          <createTablePolicy>on_missing_columns</createTablePolicy>
        </directory>
      </extension>
      <extension target="org.nuxeo.ecm.core.cache.CacheService" point="caches">
        <cache name="continent-entry-cache">
          <ttl>20</ttl><!-- minutes -->
          <option name="maxSize">100</option>
          <option name="concurrencyLevel">500</option>
        </cache>
        <cache name="continent-entry-cache-without-references">
          <ttl>20</ttl><!-- minutes -->
          <option name="maxSize">100</option>
          <option name="concurrencyLevel">500</option>
        </cache>
      </extension>
    </component>
    

LDAP Directories

LDAP directories store information in a LDAP database. They are defined through the servers and directories extension points of the org.nuxeo.ecm.directory.ldap.LDAPDirectoryFactory component.

First, one or more servers have to be defined. A server defines:

  • name: The name of the server which will be used in the declaration of the directories;
  • ldapUrl: The address of the LDAP server, in ldap:// or ldaps:// form. There can be several such tags to leverage clustered LDAP configurations;
  • bindDn: The Distinguished Name used to bind to the LDAP server;
  • bindPassword: The corresponding password.

The bind credentials are used by the Nuxeo Platform to browse, create and modify all entries (irrespective of the actual Nuxeo user these entries may represent).

Optional parameters are:

  • connectionTimeout: The connection timeout (in milliseconds), the default is 10000 (10 seconds);
  • poolingEnabled: Whether to enable internal connection pooling (the default is true). Example:

    <?xml version="1.0"?>
    <component name="com.example.project.directories.ldap.srv">
      <extension target="org.nuxeo.ecm.directory.ldap.LDAPDirectoryFactory"
          point="servers">
        <server name="default">
          <ldapUrl>ldap://localhost:389</ldapUrl>
          <bindDn>cn=nuxeo,ou=applications,dc=example,dc=com</bindDn>
          <bindPassword>secret</bindPassword>
        </server>
      </extension>
    </component>
    
    

Once you have declared the server, you can define new LDAP directories. The sub-elements of the directory element are:

  • name, schema, idField and passwordField: same as for SQL directories;
  • searchBaseDn: Entry point into the server's LDAP tree structure; searches are only made below this root node;
  • searchClass: Restricts the type of entries to return as result;
  • searchFilter: Additional LDAP filter to restrict the search results;
  • searchScope: The scope of the search. It can take two values:onelevel to search only under the current node, or subtree to search in the whole subtree;
  • substringMatchType: Defines how the query is built using wildcard characters. Three different values can be provided:

    • subany: wildcards are added around the string to match (as foo);
    • subinitial: wildcard is added before the string (*bar);
    • subfinal: wildcard is added after the string (baz*). This is the default behavior;
  • readOnly: Boolean value. When set to false, this parameter allows to create new entries or modify existing ones in the LDAP server;
  • cacheTimeout: Cache timeout in seconds;
    It will be deprecated from LTS 2015 and should be replace by the usage of cacheEntryName and cacheEntryWithoutReferencesName where max size and TTL (equivalent to timeout) can be configured.
  • cacheMaxSize: Maximum number of cached entries before global invalidation;
    Will also be deprecated from LTS 2015.
  • cacheEntryName: The name of the cache (from the CacheService) containing full entries. (SQL/LDAP only)
  • cacheEntryWithoutReferencesName: The name of the cache (from the CacheService) containing entries without references. (SQL/LDAP only)
  • creationBaseDn: Entry point in the server's LDAP tree structure where new entries will be created. Useless to provide if the readOnly attribute is set to true;
  • creationClass: Use as many tag as needed to specify which classes are used to define new people entries in the LDAP server. Example:

    <?xml version="1.0"?>
    <component name="com.example.project.directories.ldap.dir">
      <extension target="org.nuxeo.ecm.directory.ldap.LDAPDirectoryFactory"
          point="directories">
        <directory name="userDirectory">
          <server>default</server>
          <schema>user</schema>
          <idField>username</idField>
          <passwordField>password</passwordField>
    
          <searchBaseDn>ou=people,dc=example,dc=com</searchBaseDn>
          <searchClass>person</searchClass>
          <searchFilter>(&amp;(sn=foo*)(myCustomAttribute=somevalue))</searchFilter>
          <searchScope>onelevel</searchScope>
          <substringMatchType>subany</substringMatchType>
    
          <readOnly>false</readOnly>
    
          <cacheEntryName>ldap-user-entry-cache</cacheEntryName>
          <cacheEntryWithoutReferencesName>ldap-user-entry-cache-without-references</cacheEntryWithoutReferencesName>
    
          <creationBaseDn>ou=people,dc=example,dc=com</creationBaseDn>
          <creationClass>top</creationClass>
          <creationClass>person</creationClass>
          <creationClass>organizationalPerson</creationClass>
          <creationClass>inetOrgPerson</creationClass>
        </directory>
      </extension>
      <extension target="org.nuxeo.ecm.core.cache.CacheService" point="caches">
        <cache name="ldap-user-entry-cache">
          <ttl>20</ttl><!-- minutes -->
          <option name="maxSize">100</option>
          <option name="concurrencyLevel">500</option>
        </cache>
        <cache name="ldap-user-entry-cache-without-references">
          <ttl>20</ttl><!-- minutes -->
          <option name="maxSize">100</option>
          <option name="concurrencyLevel">500</option>
        </cache>
      </extension>
    </component>
    
    

Multi-directories

Multi-directories are used to combine values coming from different directories. They are defined through the directories extension point of the org.nuxeo.ecm.directory.multi.MultiDirectoryFactory component.

A multi-directory is made up of one or more sources. Each source aggregates one or more sub-directories.

A source defines:

  • name: The source name, for identification purposes;
  • creation: true when new entries should be created in this source (default is false);
  • subDirectory: One or more sub-directories.

A subDirectory has:

  • name: The name of a valid directory, from which data will be read and written;
  • optional: true if the sub-directory may have no info about a given entry without this being an error (default is false);
  • field: Zero or more field mapping between the underlying sub-directory and the name it should have in the multi-directory.

A field element is of the form: <field for="foo">bar</field>. This means that the field foo of the underlying directory will be turned into a field named bar in the multi-directory.

When an entry is requested from the multi-directory, each source will be consulted in turn. The first one that has an answer will be used. In a source, the fields of a given entry will come from all the sub-directories, with appropriate field name re-mapping. Each sub-directory has part of the entry, keyed by its main id (which may be remapped).

For the creation of new entries, only the sources marked for creation are considered. Example:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<component name="com.example.project.directories.multi">
  <extension target="org.nuxeo.ecm.directory.multi.MultiDirectoryFactory"
      point="directories">
    <directory name="mymulti">
      <schema>someschema</schema>
      <idField>uid</idField>
      <passwordField>password</passwordField>
      <source name="sourceA" creation="true">
        <subDirectory name="dir1">
          <field for="thefoo">foo</field>
        </subDirectory>
        <subDirectory name="dir2">
          <field for="uid">id</field>
          <field for="thebar">bar</field>
        </subDirectory>
      </source>
      <source name="sourceB">
        ...
      </source>
    </directory>
  </extension>
</component>

References Between Directories

Directory references leverage two common ways of string relationship in LDAP directories.

Static Reference as a DN-Valued LDAP Attribute

The static reference strategy is to apply when a multi-valued attribute stores the exhaustive list of distinguished names of reference entries, for example the uniqueMember of the groupOfUniqueNames object.

<ldapReference field="members" directory="userDirectory"
  staticAttributeId="uniqueMember" />

The staticAttributeId attribute contains directly the value which can be read and manipulated.

Dynamic Reference as a ldapUrl-Valued LDAP Attribute

The dynamic attribute strategy is used when a potentially multi-value attribute stores a LDAP URL intensively, for example the memberURL's attribute of the groupOfURL object class.

<ldapReference field="members" directory="userDirectory"
  forceDnConsistencyCheck="false"
  dynamicAttributeId="memberURL" />

The value contained in dynamicAttributeId looks like ldap:///ou=groups,dc=example,dc=com??subtree?(cn=sub*) and will be resolved by dynamical queries to get all values. The forceDnConsistencyCheck attribute will check that the value got through the dynamic resolution correspond to the attended format. Otherwise, the value will be ignored. Use this check when you are not sure of the validity of the distinguished name.

LDAP Tree Reference

The LDAP tree reference can be used to resolve children in the LDAP tree hierarchy.

<ldapTreeReference field="children" directory="groupDirectory"
  scope="subtree" />

The field has to be a list of strings. It will resolve children of entries in the current directory, and look them up in the directory specified in the reference.The scope attribute. Available scopes are "onelevel" (default), "subtree". Children with same id than parent will be filtered. An inverse reference can be used to retrieve the parent form the children entries. It will be stored in a list, even if there can be only 0 or 1 parent.

Edit is NOT IMPLEMENTED: modifications to this field will be ignored when saving the entry.

Defining Inverse References

Inverse references are defined with the following declarations:

<references>
  <inverseReference field="groups" directory="groupDirectory"
    dualReferenceField="members" />
</references>

This syntax should be understood as "the member groups value is an inverse reference on groupDirectory directory using members reference". It is the group directory that stores all members for a given group. So the groups of a member are retrieved by querying in which groups a member belongs to.

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