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Nuxeo Stream

Updated: November 4, 2019

Nuxeo Stream provides a Log storage abstraction and a Stream processing pattern.

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Log and Stream Processing

The Log

A log is a storage abstraction; it is an append-only sequence of record ordered by time. This simple concept is at the heart of many data-intensive applications. It brings fault tolerance, durability, immutability and ordering to a distributed system.

Stream Processing

When the processing of records is expected to give near real-time feedback, and the number of records is unbounded, this is called stream processing.

Nuxeo provides a Stream Processing pattern based on computation.
A computation can be seen as a Unix program:

  • A computation is doing one thing well and expect its output to become the input of another computation.
  • Computations can be composed using streams, like Unix programs can be composed using pipes.

But it is much more powerful:

  • A computation can have many input and output streams enabling to create a complex topology.
  • A computation can be executed in parallel.
  • Computations can be distributed on multiple machines.
  • Computation can be added, restarted or removed without stopping the processing or data loss.
  • Computations are fault tolerant and can define an error handling strategy.
  • Streams capacity is only limited by disk size, there is no need to introduce back pressure to slow down producers.
  • Streams are persisted during a retention period, all records are kept. It is possible to debug, tune and test new features easily.
  • Messages exchanged by computations can be validated according to an Avro schema taking care of message evolution and interoperability.
  • Computations are monitored, the lag and latency between producer and consumer are available metrics

Visit the Nuxeo Stream README for more details.

Nuxeo Stream Library

The nuxeo-stream module provides a log-based broker message passing system with a computation stream pattern.

This module has no dependency on Nuxeo framework to ease integration with external sources or sinks.

The underlying Log solution relies on:

  • either on Chronicle Queue which is a high-performance off-Heap queue library. There is no broker to install, it relies entirely on OS memory mapped file (the storage is limited by disk capacity).

  • either on Apache Kafka which is a distributed streaming platform.

The Chronicle Queue implementation can be used when producers and consumers are on the same node, for distributed support and fault tolerance Kafka is required.

Please visit the Kafka page for more information.

Nuxeo Stream Service

The nuxeo-runtime-stream module provides an integration of the nuxeo-stream library with Nuxeo by exposing Nuxeo services:

Kafka Configuration Service

This service enables to register Kafka access, along with Kafka properties for consumer and producers.

Please visit the Kafka page for more information.

Codec Service

The record needs to be encoded (and decoded) into binary format to be stored in a stream.

The Log API requires a record to extend Java Externalizable, but this does not mean that interoperability is limited to Java.

The Codec service proposes multiple formats:

  • legacy: default using Java Externalizable.
  • java: explicitly use Java Externalizable.
  • avroBinary: use Java reflection to extract an Avro schema and convert the record to Avro.
  • avro: use Java reflection to convert the record to Avro message which is avro binary with a header containing a fingerprint of the schema.
  • avroConfluent: same as avro but using the Confluent Schema Registry

avro and avroConfluent refer to a schema fingerprint so they are an interoperable format that supports forward and backward compatibility.

When using the Computation pattern, the record is always of type org.nuxeo.lib.stream.computation.Record that contains the following information:

  • key: a string that can be used to assign a Log partition
  • data: an array of bytes
  • watermark: an extended timestamp with a sequence
  • flagAsByte: a byte representing 8 flags

The default codec for the computation record is avro (this can be changed by configuration), with the following schema:

{
  "name": "Record",
  "namespace": "org.nuxeo.lib.stream.computation",
  "type": "record",
  "fields": [
    {
      "name": "watermark",
      "type": "long"
    },
    {
      "name": "key",
      "type": "string"
    },
    {
      "name": "data",
      "type": {
        "type": "bytes",
        "java-class": "[B"
      }
    },
    {
      "name": "flagsAsByte",
      "type": {
        "type": "int",
        "java-class": "java.lang.Byte"
      }
    }
  ]
}

The computation record acts as an envelope that contains the data used by the computations. The embedded data is a convention between computations and can be whatever you like, from plain JSON to Avro. Using the Codec service with an avro message is a good option to encode and decode this data, because:

  • it provides a Schema validation preventing corrupted or incomplete data
  • it is fast and very compact
  • the Schema can evolve without breaking existing code

Also, it is possible to contribute a new Codec.

Nuxeo Stream Services

The StreamService enables to define Log configurations and eventually to initialize Log.

   <extension target="org.nuxeo.runtime.stream.service" point="logConfig">
    <!-- Chronicle impl, define the storage directory with a week of retention -->
    <logConfig name="myImport" type="chronicle">
      <option name="directory">import</option>
      <option name="basePath">/var/lib/nuxeo/my-import</option>
      <option name="retention">7d</option>
      <!-- Init a log with 12 partitions if it does not exists -->
      <log name="myLog" size="12" />
    </logConfig>

It provides a low-level access to the Log using the LogManager that can create Log, create tailer (reader) or appender (writer).

  StreamService service = Framework.getService(StreamService.class);
  LogManager logManager = service.getLogManager("myImport");

  // write
  LogAppender<MyRecord> appender = logManager.getAppender("myLog");
  appender.append(key, new MyRecord(key, "foo"));

  // read
  try (LogTailer<MyRecord> tailer = logManager.createTailer("myConsumerGroup", "myLog")) {
      LogRecord<MyRecord> logRecord = tailer.read(Duration.ofSeconds(1));
      MyRecord myRecord = logRecord.message();
      // ... do something with the message
      // then save the current position
      tailer.commit();
  }
  // never close the manager, this is done by the service

When using the Stream Processing pattern, you do not have to use the LogManager directly.
Register your processor by providing:

  • a Java Class that defines a topology of computations
  • some settings that describe the stream configuration (partitions, codec) and how to run the computation (concurrency, policies) The StreamService will run a set of computation thread pools called a Processor when starting.

    <streamProcessor name="myStreamProcessor" class="org.nuxeo.runtime.stream.tests.MyStreamProcessor"
      defaultConcurrency="4" defaultPartitions="2" logConfig="default">
      <!-- All the streams used in the topology will be initialized with the default partitions and codec
           but you can change the default: -->
      <stream name="input" partitions="1" codec="avro" />
      <stream name="output" codec="avroJson" />
      <!-- Same for the computation concurrency and policy -->
      <computation name="myComputation" concurrency="1" />
      <policy name="myComputation" maxRetries="10" delay="1s" maxDelay="60s" continueOnFailure="false" />
      <!-- It is possible to pass a map of options to your stream processor constructor -->
      <option name="myOption">value</option>
    </streamProcessor>
    

If you want to write some input to feed your processor:

  StreamService service = Framework.getService(StreamService.class);
  // Get a stream manager based on a log configuration
  StreamManager streamManager = service.getLogManager("default");
  // Append a record
  streamManager.append("input", Record.of("key", "some message".getBytes("UTF-8")));

Error Handling

Strategies for handling errors is essential to have stable and reliable processing.

Retry Policy

Errors can be temporary, in this case retrying after some delay is a good strategy. The classical way is to configure a number of retries with a delay that backs off exponentially up to a maximum, for instance:

<policy name="myComputation" maxRetries="8" delay="1s" maxDelay="60s" continueOnFailure="false" />

The above configuration defines a retry policy with 8 retries, starting with a delay of 1s that backs off exponentially up to 60s:

  • t: error, wait 1s
  • t+1s: retry 1 in error, wait 2s
  • t+3s: retry 2 in error, wait 4s
  • t+7s: retry 3 in error, wait 8s
  • t+15s: retry 4 in error, wait 16s
  • t+31s: retry 5 in error, wait 32s
  • t+63s: retry 5 in error, wait 60s because this is the maxDelay
  • t+123s: retry 6 in error, wait 60s
  • t+183s: retry 7 in error, wait 60s
  • t+243s: retry 8 success!

This policy tolerates a ~4min shortage.

Note that the default policy in Nuxeo is:

<policy name="..." maxRetries="20" delay="1s" maxDelay="60s" continueOnFailure="false" />

which tolerates a 15min shortage.

When using Kafka, the record is reassigned to a valid consumer, the tolerance in this case is: 15min * number of consumer threads.

Fallback

After applying the retry policy if the computation is still in error, the computation uses the fallback directive continueOnFailure.

If the computation is not doing something critical setting continueOnFailure to true will skip the record and continue processing records. The failure with the record position is traced.

By default and for critical computation continueOnFailure is set to false, the computation is in failure and terminates its thread.
This means that the processing is blocked even if upstream computations can continue to append records.

Furthermore, when using Kafka, a computation that terminates will trigger a rebalancing and its partitions will be re-assigned to another available computation thread and the record will be processed again. If the error is permanent, all the computation threads on all nodes are going to terminate, blocking the downstream computations completely.

Also, nothing prevents a computation from creating a Dead Letter Queue mechanism. In case of failure, the record is persisted in a dedicated stream and the processing continues. This is the approach taken by the WorkManager DLQ.

Recovery After Failure

A computation in failure on critical processing requires a human intervention to understand the cause and fix it.

There are different possible causes:

  • An infrastructure failure, like a disk full, once fixed, a rolling restart of Nuxeo nodes must be done to restart computations threads. If this is done within the retention period (7 days by default when using Kafka), there is no data loss.

  • A bug in the computation, redeploying a fix within the retention period is the best option, if this is not possible we should force the computation to skip the failure, see below

  • A poisonous record, something which is not supposed to be in the stream and must be skipped, the procedure is the following:

    1. Add this nuxeo.conf option on a single Nuxeo node: nuxeo.stream.recovery.skipFirstFailures=1 Then restart the node, with this option processors will skip the first record in failure instead of terminating. Check the server.log file that this is the case.
    2. Remove the nuxeo.stream.recovery.skipFirstFailures=1 option line from nuxeo.conf
    3. Perform a rolling restart of other Nuxeo nodes to restore all processor threads.

Alerting

A critical Computation in failure requires human intervention, so it is important to be alerted.

The following metric needs to be monitored on each Nuxeo node, any value greater than 0 should trigger an alert:

nuxeo.nuxeo.stream.failure.count

Another way to be alerted is by monitoring the server.log file looking for error pattern like:

ERROR [ComputationRunner] Terminate computation: <SOME_COMPUTATION_NAME> due to previous failure

There is also a streamStatus Nuxeo probe activated by default on the runningstatus endpoint health check.

It is important to understand that this probe will immediately report a computation failure with a message like:

2 computations have been terminated after failure. First failure detected: 2019-10-30 14:57:22Z, probe failure delayed by PT36H. This Nuxeo instance must be restarted within the stream retention period.

but the probe failure is delayed by 36 hours in order to have time to apply the recovery procedure.

This delay is necessary because most of the time the Nuxeo health check is used by load balancer and we don't want to interrupt the service immediately while we have time to fix the problem during the retention duration without downtime or data loss.

The probe delay is configurable using the nuxeo.conf option, keep it under the retention duration (7 days when using Kafka).

nuxeo.stream.health.check.delay=36h

Monitoring

Computations expose metrics per node (* is to be replaced with the computation name):

  • the number of failure per computation: nuxeo.nuxeo.stream.computation.*.failure.count
  • the number of record skipped after retries: nuxeo.nuxeo.stream.computation.*.failure.count
  • the number of computation running (processing record): nuxeo.nuxeo.stream.computation.*.running.count
  • the time and rate on record processing: nuxeo.nuxeo.stream.computation.*.processRecord.*
  • the time and rate on the timer processing: nuxeo.nuxeo.stream.computation.*.processTimer.*

The above metrics can be exposed in JMX, Graphite, StatsD or DataDog.

It is possible to get computation cluster metrics like:

  • the number of records to process to catch up with the producer (or the end of the stream): lag
  • the number of records in the stream: end
  • the position of the computation in the stream, its last committed position: pos
  • the elapsed time between now and the last processed record was submitted, only if there is some lag: latency

For instance:

  • A lag of 3 indicates that the computation pool has 3 records to process to catch up with the producer.
  • A latency of 5min indicates that the computation is 5 min behind the producer.

If the latency keeps growing, then it is probable that the computation is in failure.

The stream.sh script exposes the above metrics, it is part of Nuxeo distribution in the bin directory.

To get the lag, pos and end for all streams and computations:

./bin/stream.sh -k lag

To get the latency in addition:

./bin/stream.sh -k latency --codec avro

To publish these metrics periodically into graphite:

# publish to graphite all lag and latency for all streams every 30s
 /bin/stream.sh monitor -k --codec avro -l ALL -i 30 --host graphite --port 2003

Note that this monitoring command can be run on all Nuxeo nodes. It requires very few resources and because it relies on Kafka, only one command will publish the metrics, the other instances are there for automatic failover.

Integration

The Nuxeo stream service is used in different locations.

Stream Audit Writer

Used by default since Nuxeo 9.3. A sync listener collects the events that need to be traced in the audit.

When the transaction is committed, events are written as JSON into an audit Log. A StreamProcessor takes the audit Log as input and send the entries in batch to the Audit backend.

This brings:

  • Reliability: the entries are first persisted to the log and can be processed later even if the audit backend is not reachable or if the application crash.
  • Performance: the entries are sent to the audit backend at a constant and optimal throughput, not tied to the application activity.

The Stream audit writer can be configured with the following options:

# When disabled the previous "no stream" audit bulk writer implementation is used
nuxeo.stream.audit.enabled=true
# The log configuration to use
nuxeo.stream.audit.log.config=audit
# Send log entries by batch
nuxeo.stream.audit.batch.size=25
# Do not wait more than this threshold if the batch is not full
nuxeo.stream.audit.batch.threshold.ms=500
# How to encode the records
nuxeo.stream.audit.log.codec=legacy

Stream WorkManager

This implementation is not activated by default.

Instead of queueing work into memory or into Redis (which is also in memory), work can be queued into a Log without worries about the memory limits.

Kafka is required to enable distributed work in cluster mode.

To scale horizontally, so adding Nuxeo node supports more load, the number of Log partitions that fix the maximum concurrency must be higher than the thread pool size of a single node. This strategy is called partition over provisioning.

By default, there is an over-provisioning factor of 3.
For instance, with a work pool of size 4, we have 12 partitions in the Log:

  • For a cluster of 1 node: there are 4 threads, each reading from 3 partitions.
  • For a cluster of 2 nodes: there are 8 threads, some reading from 2 partitions, other reading from 1 partition.
  • For a cluster of 3 nodes: there are 12 threads, each thread reading from one partition.
  • For a cluster of 4 nodes: there are 16 threads, some threads in the work pool will be unused, reducing the overall node load.

Note that, a work pool of size 1 is not over-provisioned because we don't want any concurrency.

The Stream WorkManager can be configured with the following options:

# Activate the StreamWorkManager
nuxeo.stream.work.enabled=true
# The log config to use
nuxeo.stream.work.log.config=work
# The over provisioning factor
nuxeo.stream.work.over.provisioning.factor=3
# How to encode the records
nuxeo.stream.work.log.codec=legacy

The behavior of the Stream WorkManager is slightly different than the default WorkManager:

  • Works are immutable: they can not be used as a storage for results, the repository or the transient store should be used instead
  • Works cannot be listed or loaded on demand because this can not scale
  • Works with the same id are executed only once, this make work idempotent for free
  • At the moment the number of Running works is only an estimation, scheduled and completed metrics are reliable

This requires some work and WorkManager usage adaptations, this is still a work in progress.

Stream PubSub Provider

The PubSub service is used by the cache service to handle cluster invalidation.

There is an implementation based on Nuxeo Stream that can be activated with the following option:

nuxeo.pubsub.provider=stream
# How to encode the records
nuxeo.stream.pubsub.log.codec=avroBinary

Stream Importer

The nuxeo-importer-stream which is part of the nuxeo-platform-importer addon use Log to run document importer.

Please visit nuxeo-importer-stream README for more information.

Bulk Action Framework

The Bulk Action Framework is leveraging Nuxeo Stream to be able to run resilient bulk actions on documents. Please visit nuxeo-core-bulk README for more information.

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